Chemische, verfahrenstechnische und ökonomische Bewertung von Kohlendioxid als Rohstoff in der chemischen Industrie
Jülich / Forschungszentrum Jülich, Zentralbibliothek (2015) [Book, Dissertation / PhD Thesis]
Page(s): VIII, 272 S. : graph. Darst.
The utilisation of CO2 as feedstock in the chemical industry represents an alternative to the geological storage, which is legally limited and socially debated. Generally, scientific publications about the utilisation of CO2 in chemical reactions typically address the feasibility of the syntheses without paying attention to the CO2 reduction potential or the economy in contrast to the conventional process of production. The aim of this doctoral thesis is to identify chemical reactions with CO2 as feedstock, which have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions. These reactions are evaluated concerning the industrial realization, CO2 balance and economy compared to the conventional processes. To achieve this, 123 reactions from the literature were collected and evaluated with the help of selection criteria developed specifically for this application. The criteria consider both, the quantitative potential to reduce CO2 and possible economical interests in these reactions. Additional to the process of the evaluation of the reactions, a CO2 reduction potential of 1.33 % of the greenhouse gas emissions within the European Union could be calculated. For the chemicals formic acid, oxalic acid, formaldehyde, methanol, urea and dimethyl ether, which most fully satisfy the selection criteria, a direct comparison of the CO2 based process with the conventional process is performed. By literature data, process designs, and simulations, it has been shown that the highest reductions of CO2 emissions can be achieved for methanol with 1.43 kgCO2/kgMeOH and dimethyl ether with 2.17 kgCO2/kgDME, but only with the assumption that the necessary hydrogen for the CO2 based reaction is produced by electrolysis operated with renewable energy. Overall, the CO2 based production processes of methanol and dimethyl ether could reduce 0.059 % of the greenhouse gas emissions of the European Union (EU) if all conventional processes are substituted in the EU. Finally, for the CO2 based processes of methanol and dimethyl ether it could be shown that the manufacturing costs are 3.3 or 2.9 times higher than for the corresponding conventional processes. The result of this are CO2 abatement costs of 540 €/tCO2 for the CO2 based production of methanol and 440 €/tCO2 for dimethyl ether. These abatement costs are respectively 90 and 73 times higher than for the geological storage of CO2. For the case, that the production costs for the necessary hydrogen decrease from 5.22 to 1.22 or 1.76 €/kgH2 no abatement costs are necessary.