Initialinfrastruktur für Wasserstoffmobilität auf Basis von Flotten
Jülich / Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Zentralbibliothek, Verlag (2019) [Book, Dissertation / PhD Thesis]
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Currently, road transportation is responsible for large shares of air pollution and CO2 emissions. These problems could be addressed by deploying fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), but FCEVs require a nation-wide hydrogen refueling station (HRS) network. During the initial phase of the infrastructure build, the utilization ratio of these refueling stations is too small to make them economically viable. One possible strategy would be to tie expansion of the HRS network to FCEV fleet operation, since these vehicles typically require only local HRS infrastructure and can guarantee a high HRS utilization ratio. This enables a stepwise HRS network expansion. The goal of this thesis is to evaluate combined operation of HRS with carsharing, taxi and bus fleets in terms of profitability and to investigate this strategy’s potential. In order to achieve this, the topology of HRS supplying fleets is optimized for profitability. For this purpose, hydrogen demand profiles are modeled for each fleet type and combined with a computer simulation of an HRS consisting of onsite electrolysis fed by a wind farm. HRS supplying fleets distributed across Germany are then designed and sited in such a way that they result in an HRS network yielding maximum benefit to private car owners. This optimization relies on a specially developed method for evaluating HRS network quality. Finally, it is determined whether the resulting initial hydrogen infrastructure provides adequately distributed and national coverage. The results show that vehicle fleets are capable of enabling profitable HRS operation, if boundary conditions are altered. In particular, the EEG surcharge on wind power prevents profitable HRS operation. Also, the hydrogen selling price should be at least slightly increased. The currently planned network of 71 HRS would enable 1.2 m people to use FCEVs. By extending this network by building HRS for fleets in 80 major cities in Germany, up to 17.5 m people could switch to FCEVs, though this network requires subsidies for installation and operation of 34.5 m € per year. An analysis of different stages of the expansion indicates that some sites are particularly important to the utility of the network. Among these are Hagen, Halle (Saale), Jena and Würzburg. In order to meet the requirement of an initial infrastructure providing national coverage, between 39 and 99 additional HRS must be sited and built. Consequently, installation and operation result in deficits of 6.1 m € to 15.5 m € per year. The resulting network consists of between 110 to 170 HRS, far less than current estimates of the required initial infrastructure. However, current network development plans envisage only 100 HRS. Thus, these plans should be expanded in order to enable accelerated deployment of FCEVs.
Praktiknjo, Aaron Jonathan